*ZEYNEP DOĞA DEMİREL – APM STAJYERİ, ODTÜ Kuzey Kıbrıs Kampüsü Siyaset Bilimi ve Uluslararası İlişkiler Bölümü
World politics is currently experiencing once again the rise of the far-right in different countries; Giorgia Meloni in Italy, Viktor Orbán in Hungary, Geert Wilders in the Netherlands, Javier Milei in Argentina, Marine Le Pen in France, AfD (Alternative for Germany), all can be considered as examples of the far-right populist movements across the globe. The reasons for the rise of right-wing movements stem mainly from two factors:
- Firstly, high degree of globalisation and widespread proliferation of technology enabled movements of people and information quickly. This circulation further gave rise to migration, which is one of the main sources of insecurity. Whitehead (2023) indicated that the fundamental issue arises from the discomfort felt by citizens who fear they might lose their jobs and houses due to extensive immigration. This concern is heightened by economic stagnation and an unsettling degree of worldwide instability. Another scholar, Rodrik (2021) highlighted that globalization-induced disruptions, frequently influencing cultural and identity realms, have significantly contributed to the surge in backing for populist movements, especially those aligned with right-wing ideologies.
Another issue embedded in globalisation is the backlash it produced as a result of the gap between the rich and the poor, thus raising awareness challenging it. New technologies enabled the situational awareness of the marginalized people and encouraged solidarity among them. Before the globalization, for instance, the world was not much witnessing movements such as the LGBTQ+ issue since there was not diversity as such. This diversity, indeed, at odds with the promises of right-wing ideology, which is authoritarian in nature, premised on anti-immigrant policies, and guided by traditional hierarchies (i.e.conservatism). As a response to the highly globalized world and its underlying causes, mainly migration, economic stagnation, increasing instability and uncertainty, and diversity of identities, right-wing movements gained further significance to protect the status quo.
- The second reason is due to the lack of trust in democracies. Democracy and openness, despite their appeal, do not seem to benefit all the countries to the same extent, and people start to seek alternative surveillance methods. Toscano (2023) argues that amid widespread disillusionment, the extreme right is capitalizing, on a global scale, on the unfulfilled pledges of a reformed social democracy and the unsuccessful attempts of movements challenging the existing establishment.
With numerous supporters of progression losing faith in the feasibility of advancement, the control exercised by
and punitive tendencies emblematic of the far right hold great appeal to a confused and dissatisfied voting population. Anton Jager (2023), speaking to CNN, asserts that the resurgence of the far right has been facilitated by the ineffectiveness of established political parties. This failure has resulted in their incapacity to maintain their place, consequently leaving mainstream ideologies unable to staunchly defend their positions.
In conclusion, the rise of right-wing movements globally is fueled by a combination of factors: fears and insecurities stemming from globalization-induced disruptions, concerns about cultural and identity shifts, and a growing disillusionment with the effectiveness of established political systems and ideologies.
Against this background, the current global landscape is now characterized by a multi-polar world order, the sources and directions of emerging threats remain ambiguous and
multifaceted. This uncertainty has prompted states to intensify their efforts to secure and entrench their geopolitical positions, often manifesting in the reinforcement of border controls and the implementation of stringent policies. Thus, it could be posited that there exists a direct correlation between escalating feelings of insecurity among states and a heightened inclination toward adopting assertive, right-wing policies. This putative linkage between heightened feelings of insecurity and the embrace of right-wing policies underscores the complex interplay between international ambiguities and domestic political dynamics. As states grapple with the complexities of a multi-polar world order and the surrounding blurred emerging threats, the pursuit of stringent border controls and assertive policies represent an attempt to reinforce national resilience and assert sovereignty in an increasingly unpredictable and contested global landscape.
Rodrik, D. (2021). Why does globalization fuel populism? Economics, culture, and the rise of right-wing populism.
Annual Review of Economics, 13, 133-170
Toscano, A. (2023, November 21). The rise of the far right is a global phenomenon. In These
What’s behind the rise of the far right in Europe? Two experts explain. (2023, October 10).
Whitehead, A. (2023, November 28). The right wing is on the rise globally. The